Non-destructive testing, NDT, is a very broad group of structural or material inspections, and as the name implies, these inspections do not destroy the material/structure being examined. NDT plays a critical role in assuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable and cost-effective fashion. Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected, it is a highly valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research. NDT technicians and engineers define and implement tests that locate and characterize material conditions and flaws that might otherwise cause serious accidents, such as planes crashing, reactors failing, trains derailing, pipelines bursting, and various troubling events.
This concept is extended and known as Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) when combined with assessing the significance of any defects found. However, they are both terms often used interchangeably. Some testing methods must be conducted in a laboratory setting, and others may be adapted for use in the field. Several commonly employed NDT techniques and their characteristics are described below.
Magnetic-particle inspection is one of the NDT processes for detecting surface and near-surface imperfections and material discontinuities. This method is accomplished by inducing a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material and then dusting the surface with fine ferromagnetic particles (either dry or suspended in liquid). These are attracted to an area of flux leakage and form what is known as an indication, which is evaluated to determine its nature, cause, and course of action, if any. Although this technique reveals the location of the defects, it is often unable to determine their depth.
The piece can be magnetized by direct or indirect magnetization. Direct magnetization occurs when the electric current is passed through the test object, and a magnetic field is formed in the material. Indirect magnetization occurs when no electric current is passed through the test object, but a magnetic field is applied from an outside source. It has the major drawback of requiring to magnetize (and frequently demagnetize) the component.