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Current Nuclear Energy – to phase-out or to continue?

Current Nuclear Energy – to phase-out or to continue?

Taking out existing nuclear power plants completely destroys gains with renewables such as wind, biomass, and solar power.

We have to make a final decision on the phase-out of the current nuclear. Indecision can cost us a lot. At present, nuclear energy has been declining for thirty years, and educational capacities and supply chains are in line with this.

In 2019, nuclear power supplied 2,586 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity, equivalent to about 10% of global electricity generation, and was the second-largest low-carbon power source after hydroelectricity, as you can see from the chart. You can also see how fossil fuels dominate primary energy consumption despite the efforts of recent decades to promote renewables.

Carbon footprint of nuclear energy is equivalent to wind, less than solar, and orders of magnitude less than coal. Nuclear power plants take up far less space on the landscape than solar or wind farms, and they produce power even at night or on calm days.

In order to accomplish the goal of decarbonizing, at a minimum, we need to maintain the 10 percent of our power needs that nuclear currently provides. When you consider the nuclear build cycle and how quickly the current fleet will expire, you realize that if we don’t act quickly, we’re going to miss the opportunity to maintain that 10 percent, let alone grow it.

Greenhouse gas emissions of energy sources - tableLosing these reactors would ultimately reduce the large-scale supply of affordable and dependable clean power, as well as deplete the expertise, knowledge, and supply chain that goes along with the entire nuclear industry. Taking out existing nuclear power plants completely destroys gains with renewables such as wind, biomass, and solar power.

Today’s majority of nuclear plants are approaching the end of their design life, and only a few have been built in the last 20 years. For example, eighty-eight of America’s 93 reactors have received their first 20-year extension approval. Eleven reactors are already using research to apply for a second 20-year extension (operation up to 80 years).

This industry shows enormous inertia. It has been a commitment for many decades. It is not possible to decide on a phase-out in one year and on a return to nuclear energy in five years. Unfortunately, this is happening today, and operators do not really know whether to invest in upgrading existing reactors or not. Like when you have an old car and want to keep it running, and you have to invest in it. Indecision can cost you a lot. At present, nuclear energy has been declining for thirty years, and educational capacities and supply chains are in line with this.

Nuclear energy as controllable large-scale source

Nuclear energy is one of the few sustainable primary sources. It is the only controllable large-scale source that could complement variable renewable sources (wind and solar power), ensuring reliable 24/7 energy under all circumstances, including weather extremes and emergencies. Nuclear power plants, together with biomass, geothermal power plants, are able to follow the grid load to reduce the demands of variable renewables on the transmission system and energy storage systems. But note that, the annual enriched uranium consumption of a typical reactor is about 25 tonnes of enriched uranium. It corresponds to about 3,200,000 tons of coal burned in coal-fired power plant per year or about 5,000,000 tons of biomass burned in biomass-fired power plant per year. Considering that one pine weighs a ton, we are talking about 5,000,000 pines saved in one year. In 2019, nuclear power supplied 2,586 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity, equivalent to about 10% of global electricity generation, and was the second-largest low-carbon power source after hydroelectricity.

age of nuclear reactors in world - infographicsIn the absence of significant, successful new-build over many years, the average age (from grid connection) of operating nuclear power plants has been increasing since 1984 and as of mid‑2021 it is standing at 30.9 years, up from 30.7 years in mid-2020.

In 1990, the average age of the operating reactors in the world was 11.3 years, in 2000, it was 18.8 years and stood at 26.3 years by 2010. The leading nuclear nation is also leading the age pyramid. The U.S. has passed the 40-year average age in 2020. France’s fleet exceeds 35 years.

Taking out existing nuclear power plants completely destroys gains with renewables such as wind, biomass and solar power.

For example, on October 13, in an open letter in the German daily newspaper Die Welt, experts warned that Germany risked “carbonizing its energy system by phasing out nuclear power” and missing its 2030 climate goals.

The MIT report found that in the next decade, the most cost-efficient, reliable grid comes from an energy mix.

The MIT analysis shows a big share of nuclear, a big share of renewables, and some storage is the best mix that is low-carbon, reliable, and at the lowest cost.

Source: MIT, The Future of Nuclear Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World

Electricity Generation as Critical Infrastructure

The electric power industry represents a vital national interest. Electric power has become a central component of what has come to be known as critical infrastructure. Because electric power is the keystone of all critical infrastructures, it must be made as secure as possible. Any massive failure of the electric power industry would have immediate consequences in the physical, economic political realms. This ability to impact all three realms makes the electric power industry-unique among infrastructures, as it has all three as immediate consequences.