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Churn Flow – Froth Flow

Churn Flow – Vertical Tubes

Churn flow also referred to as froth flow, is a highly disturbed flow of two-phase fluid flow. The increasing velocity of a slug flow causes the structure of the flow to become unstable. The churn flow is characterized by a very thick and unstable liquid film, with the liquid often oscillating up and down. Due to its nearly chaotic properties, it is one of the least understood gas-liquid flow regimes.

A typical example of churn flow is boiling flow in nuclear reactors during accidents. Especially for many accident scenarios, boiling may lead to a high void fraction, including churn-turbulent flow. Its flow structure and induced pressure changes may have a strong impact on safety.

Bubbly - Slug - Churn - Annular - Mist - Flow
Sketches of flow regimes for two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. Source: Weisman, J. Two-phase flow patterns. Chapter 15 in Handbook of Fluids in Motion, Cheremisinoff N.P., Gupta R. 1983, Ann Arbor Science Publishers.
flow patterns - vertical flow - Hewitt
The vertical flow regime map of Hewitt and Roberts (1969) for flow in a 3.2cm diameter tube, validated for both air/water flow at atmospheric pressure and steam/water flow at high pressure. Source: Brennen, C.E., Fundamentals of Multiphase Flows, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521 848040
Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. Todreas Neil E., Kazimi Mujid S. Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition. CRC Press; 2 edition, 2012, ISBN: 978-0415802871
  6. Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Springer; 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-13419-2
  7. Moran Michal J., Shapiro Howard N. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-470-03037-0
  8. Kleinstreuer C. Modern Fluid Dynamics. Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4020-8670-0.
  9. U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1, 2 and 3. June 1992.
  10. White Frank M., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Education, 7th edition, February, 2010, ISBN: 978-0077422417

See above:

Two-phase Flow