**Thermal resistance** is a heat property and a temperature difference measurement by which an object or material resists a heat flow. The thermal resistance for conduction in a plane wall is defined as:

Since the concept of **thermal resistance** can be used in a variety of engineering branches, we define:

**Absolute thermal resistance**,**R**, which has units of [K/W]. Absolute thermal resistance is a property of a particular component, which has defined geometry (thickness – L, area – A, and shape). For example, a characteristic of a defined heat exchanger. Only a temperature difference is needed to solve for heat transfer._{t}**The specific thermal resistance**or specific thermal resistivity,**R**, has units of [(K·m)/W]. Specific thermal is a material constant, and material thickness and a temperature difference are required to solve for heat transfer._{λ}**R-value**. R-value (thermal insulance factor) is a measure of thermal resistance. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating effectiveness. Thermal insulance has the units [(m^{2}.K)/W] in SI units or [(ft^{2}·°F·hr)/Btu] in imperial units. It is the thermal resistance of the unit area of a material. The R-value depends on the type of insulation, its thickness, and its density. An area and a temperature difference are required to solve for heat transfer.

## R-value

The construction industry uses units such as the **R-value (resistance)**, which is expressed as the thickness of the material normalized to the thermal conductivity. Under uniform conditions, it is the temperature difference ratio across an insulator and the heat flux density through it: R(x) = ∆T/q. The higher the R-value, the more a material prevents heat transfer. As can be seen, the resistance is dependent on the thickness of the product.

## Thermal Resistance – Thermal Resistivity

In engineering, another very important concept is often used. Since there is an **analogy** between the **diffusion of heat** and **electrical charge**, engineers often use **thermal resistance** (i.e., thermal resistance against heat conduction) to calculate the heat transfer through materials. **Thermal resistance** is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. Just as electrical resistance is associated with the conduction of electricity, thermal resistance may be associated with the conduction of heat.

Consider a plane wall of thickness L and average thermal conductivity k. The two surfaces of the wall are maintained at constant temperatures of T_{1} and T_{2}. For one-dimensional steady heat conduction through the wall, we have T(x). Then **Fourier’s law** of heat conduction for the wall can be expressed as: