## Pascal – Unit of Pressure

As was discussed, the **SI unit** of **pressure** and stress is the** pascal**.

**1 pascal 1 N/m**^{2}= 1 kg / (m.s^{2})

Pascal is defined as one newton per square meter. However, it is a fairly small unit for most engineering problems, so it is convenient to work with multiples of the pascal: the **kPa**, the **bar**, and the **MPa**.

**1 MPa 10**^{6}N/m^{2}**1 bar 10**^{5}N/m^{2}**1 kPa 10**^{3}N/m^{2}

The unit of measurement called **standard atmosphere** (**atm**) is defined as:

**1 atm = 101.33 kPa**

The standard atmosphere approximates the average pressure at sea level at the latitude of 45° N. Note that there is a difference between the **standard atmosphere** (atm) and the** technical atmosphere** (at).

A technical atmosphere is a non-SI unit of pressure equal to one kilogram-force per square centimeter.

**1 at = 98.67 kPa**

**Pounds per square inch – psi**

**Pounds per square inch – psi**

The standard unit in the English system is the **pound-force per square inch (psi)**. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch.

**1 psi 1 lbf/in**^{2}= 4.45 N / (0.0254 m)^{2}≈ 6895 kg/m^{2}

Therefore, one pound per square inch is approximately 6895 Pa.

The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as:

**1 atm = 14.7 psi**

The standard atmosphere approximates the average pressure at sea level at the latitude of 45° N. Note that there is a difference between the **standard atmosphere** (atm) and the** technical atmosphere** (at).

A technical atmosphere is a non-SI unit of pressure equal to one kilogram-force per square centimeter.

**1 at = 14.2 psi**

**Bar – Unit of Pressure**

A** bar** is a metric unit of **pressure**. It is not part of the International System of Units (SI). The **bar** is commonly used in the** industry** and **meteorology**, and an instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure is called a barometer.

One bar is exactly equal to ** 100 000 Pa** and is slightly less than the average atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level (

*1 bar = 0.9869 atm).*Atmospheric pressure is often given in millibars, where standard sea level pressure is defined as 1013 mbar, 1.013 bar, or 101.3 (kPa).

Sometimes, “Bar(a)” and “bara” are used to indicate absolute pressures, and “bar(g)” and “barg” for gauge pressures.

## Typical Pressures in Engineering – Examples

The **pascal (Pa)** as a unit of pressure measurement is widely used worldwide. It has largely replaced the **pounds per square inch (psi)** unit, except in some countries that still use the Imperial measurement system, including the United States. For most engineering problems, pascal (Pa) is a fairly small unit, so it is convenient to work with multiples of the pascal: the kPa, the MPa, or the bar. The following list summarizes a few examples:

- Typically most
**nuclear power plants**operate**multi-stage condensing steam turbines**. These turbines exhaust steam at a pressure well below atmospheric (e.g.,, at 0.08 bar or 8 kPa or 1.16 psia) and in a partially condensed state. In relative units, it is a negative gauge pressure of about – 0.92 bar, – 92 kPa, or – 13.54 psig. - The
**Standard Atmospheric Pressure**approximates to the average pressure at sea-level at the latitude 45° N. The**Standard Atmospheric Pressure**is defined at sea-level at*273*^{o}*K (0*^{o}*C)*and is:*101325 Pa**1.01325 bar**14.696 psi**760 mmHg**760 torr*

- Car tire overpressure is about 2.5 bar, 0.25 MPa, or 36 psig.
- Steam locomotive fire tube boiler: 150–250 psig
- A high-pressure stage of condensing steam turbine at nuclear power plant operates at steady state with inlet conditions of 6 MPa (60 bar, or 870 psig) t = 275.6°C, x = 1
- A
**boiling water reactor**is cooled and moderated by water like a PWR, but at a**lower pressure**(e.g.,, 7MPa, 70 bar, or 1015 psig), which allows the water to boil inside the pressure vessel producing the steam that runs the turbines. **Pressurized water reactors**are cooled and moderated by high-pressure liquid water (e.g.,, 16MPa, 160 bar, or 2320 psig). At this pressure, water boils at approximately 350°C (662°F), which provides a subcooling margin of about 25°C.- The
**supercritical water reactor (SCWR)**is operated at**supercritical pressure**. The term supercritical in this context refers to the thermodynamic**critical point of water**(T_{CR}= 374 °C; p_{CR}= 22.1 MPa) **Common rail direct fuel injection:**It features a high-pressure (over 1 000 bar or 100 MPa or 14500 psi) fuel rail on diesel engines.