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Secondary Energy Sources – Energy Carriers

Secondary energy sources, also called energy carriers, are derived from the transformation of primary energy sources. They are called energy carriers because they move energy in a useable form from one place to another. The well-known energy carriers are:

  • Electricity
  • Petrol
  • Hydrogen

Electricity and hydrogen are made from primary energy sources such as coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, petroleum, and renewable energy sources. Electricity is particularly useful since it has low entropy (is highly ordered) and can be converted into other forms of energy very efficiently. , we cannot say that hydrogen has the potential to offset fossil fuels.

Secondary energy sources are used because their use is easier than using a primary energy source. For example, using electricity for lighting is safer than using petroleum in candles or kerosene lamps.

On the other hand any conversion of primary energy to energy carrier is associated with some inefficiency. Therefore when dealing with secondary energy source, we have to always consider the way, how the carrier was made.

Reactor Physics and Thermal Hydraulics:
  1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
  2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
  3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
  4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
  5. Todreas Neil E., Kazimi Mujid S. Nuclear Systems Volume I: Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals, Second Edition. CRC Press; 2 edition, 2012, ISBN: 978-0415802871
  6. Zohuri B., McDaniel P. Thermodynamics in Nuclear Power Plant Systems. Springer; 2015, ISBN: 978-3-319-13419-2
  7. Moran Michal J., Shapiro Howard N. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, ISBN: 978-0-470-03037-0
  8. Kleinstreuer C. Modern Fluid Dynamics. Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4020-8670-0.
  9. U.S. Department of Energy, THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1, 2, and 3. June 1992.

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