Structure of the Neutron

Quark structure of the Neutron
The quark structure of the neutron. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Gluons mediate forces between quarks.

Neutrons and protons are classified as hadrons, subatomic particles subject to the strong force, and baryons since they are composed of three quarks. The neutron is a composite particle made of two down quarks with charge −⅓  e and one up quark with charge +⅔ e. Since the neutron has no net electric charge, it is not affected by electric forces, but the neutron does have a slight distribution of electric charge within it. This results in a non-zero magnetic moment (dipole moment) of the neutron. Therefore the neutron also interacts via electromagnetic interaction but is much weaker than the proton.

The mass of the neutron is 939.565 MeV/c2, whereas the mass of the three quarks is only about 12 MeV/c2 (only about 1% of the mass-energy of the neutron). Like the proton, most of the mass (energy) of the neutron is in the form of the strong nuclear force energy (gluons). The quarks of the neutron are held together by gluons, the exchange particles for the strong nuclear force. Gluons carry the color charge of the strong nuclear force.

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Discovery of the Neutron

See above:

Neutron

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Properties of the Neutron