## Atomic Number of Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 7 which means there are 7 protons and 7 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Nitrogen is N.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Nitrogen

Atomic mass of Nitrogen is 14.0067 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Nitrogen

Density of Nitrogen is 1.251g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Nitrogen – Properties Summary

Element Nitrogen
Atomic Number 7
Symbol N
Element Category Non Metal
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 14.0067
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.251
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Possible Oxidation States +1,2,3,4,5/-1,2,3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 7
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 3.04
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 14.5341
Year of Discovery 1772
Discoverer Rutherford, Daniel
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -209.9
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -195.8
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.02598
Specific Heat [J/g K] 1.04
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 0.3604
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 2.7928

## Atomic Number of Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with atomic number 8 which means there are 8 protons and 8 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Oxygen is O.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Oxygen

Atomic mass of Oxygen is 15.9994 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Oxygen

Density of Oxygen is 1.429g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Oxygen – Properties Summary

Element Oxygen
Atomic Number 8
Symbol O
Element Category Non Metal
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 15.9994
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.429
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p4
Possible Oxidation States -2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 141
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 3.44
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 13.6181
Year of Discovery 1774
Discoverer Priestley, Joseph & Scheele, Carl Wilhelm
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -218.4
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -183
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.02674
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.92
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 0.22259
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 3.4099

## Atomic Number of Boron

Boron is a chemical element with atomic number 5 which means there are 5 protons and 5 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Boron is B.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Boron

Atomic mass of Boron is 10.811 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Boron

Density of Boron is 2.46g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Boron – Properties Summary

Element Boron
Atomic Number 5
Symbol B
Element Category Metalloids
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 10.811
Density at STP [g/cm3] 2.46
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p1
Possible Oxidation States +3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 26.7
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.04
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 8.298
Year of Discovery 1808
Discoverer Davy, Sir Humphry & Thénard, Louis-Jaques & Gay-Lussac, Louis-Joseph
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 2079
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2550
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 27
Specific Heat [J/g K] 1.02
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 50.2
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 489.7

## Atomic Number of Carbon

Carbon is a chemical element with atomic number 6 which means there are 6 protons and 6 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Carbon is C.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Carbon

Atomic mass of Carbon is 12.0107 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Carbon

Density of Carbon is 2.26g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Carbon – Properties Summary

Element Carbon
Atomic Number 6
Symbol C
Element Category Non Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 12.0107
Density at STP [g/cm3] 2.26
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p2
Possible Oxidation States +2,4/-4
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 153.9
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.55
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 11.2603
Year of Discovery unknown
Discoverer unknown
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 3367
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 4827
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 129
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.71
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol]
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 355.8

## Atomic Number of Lithium

Lithium is a chemical element with atomic number 3 which means there are 3 protons and 3 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Lithium is Li.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Lithium

Atomic mass of Lithium is 6.941 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Lithium

Density of Lithium is 0.535g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Lithium – Properties Summary

Element Lithium
Atomic Number 3
Symbol Li
Element Category Alkali Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 6.941
Density at STP [g/cm3] 0.535
Electron Configuration [He] 2s1
Possible Oxidation States +1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 59.6
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 0.98
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 5.3917
Year of Discovery 1817
Discoverer Arfvedson, Johan August
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 180.5
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 1342
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 85
Specific Heat [J/g K] 3.6
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 3
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 145.92

## Atomic Number of Beryllium

Beryllium is a chemical element with atomic number 4 which means there are 4 protons and 4 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Beryllium is Be.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Beryllium

Atomic mass of Beryllium is 9.0122 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Beryllium

Density of Beryllium is 1.848g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Beryllium – Properties Summary

Element Beryllium
Atomic Number 4
Symbol Be
Element Category Alkaline Earth Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 9.0122
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.848
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2
Possible Oxidation States +2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.57
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 9.3226
Year of Discovery 1797
Discoverer Vauquelin, Nicholas Louis
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1278
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2970
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 200
Specific Heat [J/g K] 1.82
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 12.2
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 292.4

## Atomic Number of Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Hydrogen is H.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Hydrogen

Atomic mass of Hydrogen is 1.0079 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Hydrogen

Density of Hydrogen is 0.0899g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Hydrogen – Properties Summary

Element Hydrogen
Atomic Number 1
Symbol H
Element Category Non Metal
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 1.0079
Density at STP [g/cm3] 0.0899
Electron Configuration 1s1
Possible Oxidation States +1,-1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 72.8
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.2
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 13.5984
Year of Discovery 1766
Discoverer Cavendish, Henry
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -259.1
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -252.9
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.1805
Specific Heat [J/g K] 14.304
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 0.05868
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 0.44936

## Atomic Number of Helium

Helium is a chemical element with atomic number 2 which means there are 2 protons and 2 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Helium is He.

Since the number of electrons is responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements.

How does the atomic number determine the chemical behavior of atoms?

## Atomic Mass of Helium

Atomic mass of Helium is 4.0026 u.

Note that each element may contain more isotopes. Therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occurring isotopes and their abundance.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu). One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 x 10-24 grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12C, the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0.1 u of the mass number. For example, 63Cu (29 protons and 34 neutrons) has a mass number of 63, and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is 62.91367 u.

There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect:

1. The neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. This increases the mass of nuclei with more neutrons than protons relative to the atomic mass unit scale based on 12C with equal numbers of protons and neutrons.
2. The nuclear binding energy varies between nuclei. A nucleus with greater binding energy has lower total energy, and therefore a lower mass according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. For 63Cu, the atomic mass is less than 63, so this must be the dominant factor.

The atomic mass number determines especially the atomic mass of atoms. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element.

How does the atomic mass determine the density of materials?

## Density of Helium

Density of Helium is 0.1785g/cm3.

Typical densities of various substances at atmospheric pressure.

Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

In other words, the density (ρ) of a substance is the total mass (m) of that substance divided by the total volume (V) occupied by that substance. The standard SI unit is kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). The Standard English unit is pounds mass per cubic foot (lbm/ft3).

## Helium – Properties Summary

Element Helium
Atomic Number 2
Symbol He
Element Category Noble Gas
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 4.0026
Density at STP [g/cm3] 0.1785
Electron Configuration 1s2
Possible Oxidation States 0
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale]
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 24.5874
Year of Discovery 1895
Discoverer Ramsey, Sir William & Cleve, Per Teodor
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -272.2
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -268.9
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.1513
Specific Heat [J/g K] 5.193
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol]
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 0.0845