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Chlorine – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Chlorine – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Chlorine is 0.48 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Chlorine is 3.23 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Chlorine is 10.2 kJ/mol.

Chlorine - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Chlorine – Properties

Element Chlorine
Atomic Number 17
Symbol Cl
Element Category Halogen
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 35.453
Density at STP [g/cm3] 3.214
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p5
Possible Oxidation States +1,5,7/-1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 349
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 3.16
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 12.9676
Year of Discovery 1774
Discoverer Scheele, Carl Wilhelm
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -101
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -34.6
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.0089
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.48
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 3.23
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 10.2

 

Chlorine in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Argon – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Argon – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Argon is 0.52 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Argon is 1.188 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Argon is 6.447 kJ/mol.

Argon - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Argon – Properties

Element Argon
Atomic Number 18
Symbol Ar
Element Category Noble Gas
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 39.948
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.784
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p6
Possible Oxidation States 0
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale]
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 15.7596
Year of Discovery 1894
Discoverer Ramsay, Sir William & Strutt, John (Lord Rayleigh)
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -189.2
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -185.7
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.01772
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.52
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 1.188
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 6.447

 

Argon in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Sulfur – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Sulfur – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Sulfur is 0.71 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Sulfur is 1.7175 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Sulfur is — kJ/mol.

Sulfur - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Sulfur – Properties

Element Sulfur
Atomic Number 16
Symbol S
Element Category Non Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 32.065
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.96
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p4
Possible Oxidation States +4,6/-2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 200
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.58
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 10.36
Year of Discovery unknown
Discoverer unknown
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 112.8
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 444.7
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.269
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.71
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 1.7175
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol]

 

Sulfur in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Phosphorus – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phosphorus – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Phosphorus is 0.77 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Phosphorus is 0.657 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Phosphorus is 12.129 kJ/mol.

Phosphorus - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Phosphorus – Properties

Element Phosphorus
Atomic Number 15
Symbol P
Element Category Non Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 30.9738
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.823
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Possible Oxidation States +3,5/-3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 72
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.19
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 10.4867
Year of Discovery 1669
Discoverer Brandt, Hennig
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 44.1
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 280
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.235
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.77
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 0.657
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 12.129

 

Phosphorus in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Aluminum – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Aluminum – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Aluminum is 0.9 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Aluminum is 10.79 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Aluminum is 293.4 kJ/mol.

Aluminum - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Aluminum – Properties

Element Aluminum
Atomic Number 13
Symbol Al
Element Category Poor Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 26.9815
Density at STP [g/cm3] 2.7
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1
Possible Oxidation States +3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 42.5
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.61
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 5.9858
Year of Discovery 1825
Discoverer Oersted, Hans Christian
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 660
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2467
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 237
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.9
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 10.79
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 293.4

 

Aluminum in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Silicon – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Silicon – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Silicon is 0.71 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Silicon is 50.55 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Silicon is 384.22 kJ/mol.

Silicon - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Silicon – Properties

Element Silicon
Atomic Number 14
Symbol Si
Element Category Metalloids
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 28.0855
Density at STP [g/cm3] 2.33
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Possible Oxidation States +2,4/-4
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 133.6
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.9
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 8.1517
Year of Discovery 1824
Discoverer Berzelius, Jöns Jacob
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1410
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2355
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 148
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.71
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 50.55
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 384.22

 

Silicon in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Sodium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Sodium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Sodium is 1.23 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Sodium is 2.598 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Sodium is 96.96 kJ/mol.

Sodium - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Sodium – Properties

Element Sodium
Atomic Number 11
Symbol Na
Element Category Alkali Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 22.9897
Density at STP [g/cm3] 0.968
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s1
Possible Oxidation States +1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 52.8
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 0.93
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 5.1391
Year of Discovery 1807
Discoverer Davy, Sir Humphry
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 97.8
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 883
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 141
Specific Heat [J/g K] 1.23
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 2.598
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 96.96

 

Sodium in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Magnesium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Magnesium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Magnesium is 1.02 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Magnesium is 8.954 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Magnesium is 127.4 kJ/mol.

Magnesium - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Magnesium – Properties

Element Magnesium
Atomic Number 12
Symbol Mg
Element Category Alkaline Earth Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 24.305
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.738
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2
Possible Oxidation States +2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.31
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.6462
Year of Discovery 1755
Discoverer Black, Joseph
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 649
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 1090
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 156
Specific Heat [J/g K] 1.02
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 8.954
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 127.4

 

Magnesium in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Fluorine – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Fluorine – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Fluorine is 0.82 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Fluorine is 0.2552 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Fluorine is 3.2698 kJ/mol.

Fluorine - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Fluorine – Properties

Element Fluorine
Atomic Number 9
Symbol F
Element Category Halogen
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 18.9984
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.696
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p5
Possible Oxidation States -1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 328
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 3.98
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 17.4228
Year of Discovery 1886
Discoverer Moissan, Henri
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -219.8
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -188.1
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.0279
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.82
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 0.2552
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 3.2698

 

Fluorine in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr



Neon – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Neon – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Neon is 0.904 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Neon is 0.3317 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Neon is 1.7326 kJ/mol.

Neon - Specific Heat, Latent Heat

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Constant Pressure

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.Table of specific heat capacities

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

specific heat - heat capacity

 

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Phase changes - enthalpy of vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

heat of fusion and vaporization

Neon – Properties

Element Neon
Atomic Number 10
Symbol Ne
Element Category Noble Gas
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 20.1797
Density at STP [g/cm3] 0.9
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p6
Possible Oxidation States 0
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale]
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 21.5645
Year of Discovery 1898
Discoverer Ramsay, William & Travers, Morris
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -248
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -248.7
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.0493
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.904
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 0.3317
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 1.7326

 

Neon in Periodic Table

Hydro­gen1H He­lium2He
Lith­ium3Li Beryl­lium4Be Boron5B Carbon6C Nitro­gen7N Oxy­gen8O Fluor­ine9F Neon10Ne
So­dium11Na Magne­sium12Mg Alumin­ium13Al Sili­con14Si Phos­phorus15P Sulfur16S Chlor­ine17Cl Argon18Ar
Potas­sium19K Cal­cium20Ca Scan­dium21Sc Tita­nium22Ti Vana­dium23V Chrom­ium24Cr Manga­nese25Mn Iron26Fe Cobalt27Co Nickel28Ni Copper29Cu Zinc30Zn Gallium31Ga Germa­nium32Ge Arsenic33As Sele­nium34Se Bromine35Br Kryp­ton36Kr
Rubid­ium37Rb Stront­ium38Sr Yttrium39Y Zirco­nium40Zr Nio­bium41Nb Molyb­denum42Mo Tech­netium43Tc Ruthe­nium44Ru Rho­dium45Rh Pallad­ium46Pd Silver47Ag Cad­mium48Cd Indium49In Tin50Sn Anti­mony51Sb Tellur­ium52Te Iodine53I Xenon54Xe
Cae­sium55Cs Ba­rium56Ba Lan­thanum57La 1 asterisk Haf­nium72Hf Tanta­lum73Ta Tung­sten74W Rhe­nium75Re Os­mium76Os Iridium77Ir Plat­inum78Pt Gold79Au Mer­cury80Hg Thallium81Tl Lead82Pb Bis­muth83Bi Polo­nium84Po Asta­tine85At Radon86Rn
Fran­cium87Fr Ra­dium88Ra Actin­ium89Ac 1 asterisk Ruther­fordium104Rf Dub­nium105Db Sea­borgium106Sg Bohr­ium107Bh Has­sium108Hs Meit­nerium109Mt Darm­stadtium110Ds Roent­genium111Rg Coper­nicium112Cn Nihon­ium113Nh Flerov­ium114Fl Moscov­ium115Mc Liver­morium116Lv Tenness­ine117Ts Oga­nesson118Og
1 asterisk Cerium58Ce Praseo­dymium59Pr Neo­dymium60Nd Prome­thium61Pm Sama­rium62Sm Europ­ium63Eu Gadolin­ium64Gd Ter­bium65Tb Dyspro­sium66Dy Hol­mium67Ho Erbium68Er Thulium69Tm Ytter­bium70Yb Lute­tium71Lu
1 asterisk Thor­ium90Th Protac­tinium91Pa Ura­nium92U Neptu­nium93Np Pluto­nium94Pu Ameri­cium95Am Curium96Cm Berkel­ium97Bk Califor­nium98Cf Einstei­nium99Es Fer­mium100Fm Mende­levium101Md Nobel­ium102No Lawren­cium103Lr