## Cobalt – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Cobalt is 0.42 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Cobalt is 16.19 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Cobalt is 376.5 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Cobalt – Properties

Element Cobalt
Atomic Number 27
Symbol Co
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 58.9332
Density at STP [g/cm3] 8.9
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d7 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2,3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 63.7
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.88
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.881
Year of Discovery 1735
Discoverer Brandt, Georg
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1495
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2927
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 100
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.42
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 16.19
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 376.5

## Nickel – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Nickel is 0.44 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Nickel is 17.47 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Nickel is 370.4 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Nickel – Properties

Element Nickel
Atomic Number 28
Symbol Ni
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 58.6934
Density at STP [g/cm3] 8.908
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d8 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2,3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 112
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.91
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.6398
Year of Discovery 1751
Discoverer Cronstedt, Alex Fredrik
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1455
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2913
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 90.7
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.44
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 17.47
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 370.4

## Manganese – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Manganese is 0.48 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Manganese is 12.05 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Manganese is 266 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Manganese – Properties

Element Manganese
Atomic Number 25
Symbol Mn
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 54.938049
Density at STP [g/cm3] 7.47
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2,3,4,7
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.55
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.434
Year of Discovery 1774
Discoverer Gahn, Johan Gottlieb
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1246
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2061
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 7.82
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.48
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 12.05
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 266

## Iron – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Iron is 0.44 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Iron is 13.8 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Iron is 349.6 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Iron – Properties

Element Iron
Atomic Number 26
Symbol Fe
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 55.845
Density at STP [g/cm3] 7.874
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d6 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2,3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 15.7
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.83
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.9024
Year of Discovery unknown
Discoverer unknown
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1538
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2861
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 80.2
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.44
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 13.8
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 349.6

## Vanadium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Vanadium is 0.49 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Vanadium is 20.9 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Vanadium is 0.452 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

### Heat of Vaporization in the Periodic Table

Atomic Number 23
Symbol V
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 50.9415
Density at STP [g/cm3] 6.11
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d3 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2,3,4,5
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 50.6
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.63
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.7463
Year of Discovery 1801
Discoverer Del Rio, Andrés Manuel (1801) & Sefström, Nils Gabriel (1830)
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1910
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 3407
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 30.7
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.49
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 20.9
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 0.452

## Chromium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Chromium is 0.45 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Chromium is 16.9 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Chromium is 344.3 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Chromium – Properties

Element Chromium
Atomic Number 24
Symbol Cr
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 51.9961
Density at STP [g/cm3] 7.14
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s1
Possible Oxidation States +2,3,6
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 64.3
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.66
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.7666
Year of Discovery 1797
Discoverer Vauquelin
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1907
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2671
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 93.7
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.45
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 16.9
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 344.3

## Scandium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Scandium is 0.6 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Scandium is 14.1 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Scandium is 314.2 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Scandium – Properties

Element Scandium
Atomic Number 21
Symbol Sc
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 44.9559
Density at STP [g/cm3] 2.985
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 18.1
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.36
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.5614
Year of Discovery 1879
Discoverer Nilson, Lars Fredrik
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1541
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2830
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 15.8
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.6
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 14.1
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 314.2

## Titanium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Titanium is 0.52 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Titanium is 15.45 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Titanium is 421 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Titanium – Properties

Element Titanium
Atomic Number 22
Symbol Ti
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 47.867
Density at STP [g/cm3] 4.507
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d2 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2,3,4
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 7.6
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.54
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.8282
Year of Discovery 1791
Discoverer Gregor, William
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1668
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 3287
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 21.9
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.52
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 15.45
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 421

## Potassium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Potassium is 0.75 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Potassium is 2.334 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Potassium is 79.87 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Potassium – Properties

Element Potassium
Atomic Number 19
Symbol K
Element Category Alkali Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 39.0983
Density at STP [g/cm3] 0.856
Electron Configuration [Ar] 4s1
Possible Oxidation States +1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 48.4
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 0.82
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 4.3407
Year of Discovery 1807
Discoverer Davy, Sir Humphry
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 63.25
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 760
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 102.4
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.75
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 2.334
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 79.87

## Calcium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Calcium is 0.63 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Calcium is 8.54 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Calcium is 153.3 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Calcium – Properties

Element Calcium
Atomic Number 20
Symbol Ca
Element Category Alkaline Earth Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 40.078
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.55
Electron Configuration [Ar] 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 2.37
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.1132
Year of Discovery 1808
Discoverer Davy, Sir Humphry
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 842
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 1484
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 200
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.63
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 8.54
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 153.3