## Rubidium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Rubidium is 0.363 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Rubidium is 2.192 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Rubidium is 72.216 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Rubidium – Properties

Element Rubidium
Atomic Number 37
Symbol Rb
Element Category Alkali Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 85.4678
Density at STP [g/cm3] 1.532
Electron Configuration [Kr] 5s1
Possible Oxidation States +1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 46.9
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 0.82
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 4.1771
Year of Discovery 1861
Discoverer Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm & Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 39.31
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 688
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 58.2
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.363
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 2.192
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 72.216

## Strontium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Strontium is 0.3 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Strontium is 8.3 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Strontium is 144 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Strontium – Properties

Element Strontium
Atomic Number 38
Symbol Sr
Element Category Alkaline Earth Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 87.62
Density at STP [g/cm3] 2.63
Electron Configuration [Kr] 5s2
Possible Oxidation States +2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 5.03
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 0.95
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 5.6948
Year of Discovery 1790
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 777
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 1382
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 35.3
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.3
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 8.3
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 144

## Bromine – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Bromine is 0.473 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Bromine is 5.286 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Bromine is 15.438 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Bromine – Properties

Element Bromine
Atomic Number 35
Symbol Br
Element Category Halogen
Phase at STP Liquid
Atomic Mass [amu] 79.904
Density at STP [g/cm3] 3.12
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Possible Oxidation States +1,5/-1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 324.6
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.96
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 11.8138
Year of Discovery 1826
Discoverer Balard, Antoine-Jérôme
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -7.3
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 59
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.122
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.473
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 5.286
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 15.438

## Krypton – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Krypton is 0.248 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Krypton is 1.638 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Krypton is 9.029 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Krypton – Properties

Element Krypton
Atomic Number 36
Symbol Kr
Element Category Noble Gas
Phase at STP Gas
Atomic Mass [amu] 83.798
Density at STP [g/cm3] 3.75
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
Possible Oxidation States 0
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 3
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 13.9996
Year of Discovery 1898
Discoverer Ramsay, Sir William & Travers, Morris
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] -157.36
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] -153.22
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 0.00949
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.248
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 1.638
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 9.029

## Arsenic – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Arsenic is 0.33 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Arsenic is — kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Arsenic is 34.76 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Arsenic – Properties

Element Arsenic
Atomic Number 33
Symbol As
Element Category Metalloids
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 74.9216
Density at STP [g/cm3] 5.727
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3
Possible Oxidation States +3,5/-3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 78
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.18
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 9.8152
Year of Discovery unknown
Discoverer unknown
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 817
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 614
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 50
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.33
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol]
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 34.76

## Selenium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Selenium is 0.32 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Selenium is 6.694 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Selenium is 37.7 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Selenium – Properties

Element Selenium
Atomic Number 34
Symbol Se
Element Category Non Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 78.96
Density at STP [g/cm3] 4.819
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4
Possible Oxidation States +4,6/-2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 195
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.55
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 9.7524
Year of Discovery 1817
Discoverer Berzelius, Jöns Jacob
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 221
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 685
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 2.04
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.32
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 6.694
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 37.7

## Gallium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Gallium is 0.37 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Gallium is 5.59 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Gallium is 258.7 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Gallium – Properties

Element Gallium
Atomic Number 31
Symbol Ga
Element Category Poor Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 69.723
Density at STP [g/cm3] 5.904
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Possible Oxidation States +3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 28.9
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.81
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 5.9993
Year of Discovery 1875
Discoverer Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Paul-Émile
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 29.76
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2204
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 40.6
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.37
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 5.59
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 258.7

## Germanium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Germanium is 0.32 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Germanium is 36.94 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Germanium is 330.9 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Germanium – Properties

Element Germanium
Atomic Number 32
Symbol Ge
Element Category Metalloids
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 72.64
Density at STP [g/cm3] 5.323
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Possible Oxidation States +2,4
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 119
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.01
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.9
Year of Discovery 1886
Discoverer Winkler, Clemens A.
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 938.3
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2820
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 59.9
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.32
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 36.94
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 330.9

## Copper – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Copper is 0.38 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Copper is 13.05 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Copper is 300.3 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Copper – Properties

Element Copper
Atomic Number 29
Symbol Cu
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 63.546
Density at STP [g/cm3] 8.92
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Possible Oxidation States +1,2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 118.4
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.9
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.7264
Year of Discovery unknown
Discoverer unknown
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1084.62
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2927
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 401
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.38
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 13.05
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 300.3

## Zinc – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Zinc is 0.39 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Zinc is 7.322 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Zinc is 115.3 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

## Zinc – Properties

Element Zinc
Atomic Number 30
Symbol Zn
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 65.409
Density at STP [g/cm3] 7.14
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2
Possible Oxidation States +2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.65
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 9.3941
Year of Discovery unknown
Discoverer unknown
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 419.53
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 907
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 116
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.39
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 7.322
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 115.3