Silver – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Silver is 0.235 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Silver is 11.3 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Silver is 250.58 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Silver – Properties

Element Silver
Atomic Number 47
Symbol Ag
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 107.8682
Density at STP [g/cm3] 10.49
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s1
Possible Oxidation States +1
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 125.6
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.93
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.5762
Year of Discovery unknown
Discoverer unknown
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 961.78
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2162
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 430
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.235
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 11.3
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 250.58

Cadmium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Cadmium is 0.23 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Cadmium is 6.192 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Cadmium is 99.57 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Heat of Vaporization in the Periodic Table

Atomic Number 48
Symbol Cd
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 112.411
Density at STP [g/cm3] 8.65
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2
Possible Oxidation States +2
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol]
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.69
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 8.9937
Year of Discovery 1817
Discoverer Stromeyer, Prof. Friedrich
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 321.07
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 767
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 97
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.23
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 6.192
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 99.57

Rhodium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Rhodium is 0.242 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Rhodium is 21.5 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Rhodium is 493 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Rhodium – Properties

Element Rhodium
Atomic Number 45
Symbol Rh
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 102.9055
Density at STP [g/cm3] 12.45
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d8 5s1
Possible Oxidation States +3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 109.7
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.28
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.4589
Year of Discovery 1803
Discoverer Wollaston, William Hyde
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1964
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 3695
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 150
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.242
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 21.5
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 493

Palladium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Palladium is 0.24 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Palladium is 17.6 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Palladium is 357 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Heat of Vaporization in the Periodic Table

Atomic Number 46
Symbol Pd
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 106.42
Density at STP [g/cm3] 12.023
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10
Possible Oxidation States +2,4
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 53.7
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.2
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 8.3369
Year of Discovery 1803
Discoverer Wollaston, William Hyde
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1554.9
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 2963
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 72
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.24
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 17.6
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 357

Technetium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Technetium is 0.21 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Technetium is 24 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Technetium is 660 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Technetium – Properties

Element Technetium
Atomic Number 43
Symbol Tc
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Synthetic
Atomic Mass [amu] 98
Density at STP [g/cm3] 11.5
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2
Possible Oxidation States +4,7
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 53
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.9
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.28
Year of Discovery 1937
Discoverer Perrier, Carlo & Segrè, Emilio
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 2157
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 4265
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 50.6
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.21
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 24
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 660

Ruthenium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Ruthenium is 0.238 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Ruthenium is 24 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Ruthenium is 595 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Ruthenium – Properties

Element Ruthenium
Atomic Number 44
Symbol Ru
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 101.07
Density at STP [g/cm3] 12.37
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d7 5s1
Possible Oxidation States +3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 101.3
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.2
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.3605
Year of Discovery 1844
Discoverer Klaus, Karl Karlovich
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 2334
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 4150
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 117
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.238
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 24
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 595

Niobium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Niobium is 0.26 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Niobium is 26.4 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Niobium is 682 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Niobium – Properties

Element Niobium
Atomic Number 41
Symbol Nb
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 92.90638
Density at STP [g/cm3] 8.57
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Possible Oxidation States +3,5
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 86.1
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.6
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.7589
Year of Discovery 1801
Discoverer Hatchet, Charles
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 2477
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 4744
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 53.7
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.26
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 26.4
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 682

Molybdenum – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Molybdenum is 0.25 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Molybdenum is 32 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Molybdenum is 598 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Molybdenum – Properties

Element Molybdenum
Atomic Number 42
Symbol Mo
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 95.94
Density at STP [g/cm3] 10.28
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s1
Possible Oxidation States +6
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 71.9
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 2.16
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 7.0924
Year of Discovery 1778
Discoverer Scheele, Carl Welhelm
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 2623
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 4639
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 138
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.25
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 32
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 598

Yttrium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Yttrium is 0.3 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Yttrium is 11.4 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Yttrium is 363 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Yttrium – Properties

Element Yttrium
Atomic Number 39
Symbol Y
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 88.90585
Density at STP [g/cm3] 4.472
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d1 5s2
Possible Oxidation States +3
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 29.6
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.22
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.217
Year of Discovery 1789
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1526
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 3345
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 17.2
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.3
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 11.4
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 363

Zirconium – Specific Heat, Latent Heat of Fusion, Latent Heat of Vaporization

Specific heat of Zirconium is 0.27 J/g K.

Latent Heat of Fusion of Zirconium is 16.9 kJ/mol.

Latent Heat of Vaporization of Zirconium is 58.2 kJ/mol.

Specific Heat

Specific heat, or specific heat capacity, is a property related to internal energy that is very important in thermodynamics. The intensive properties cv and cp are defined for pure, simple compressible substances as partial derivatives of the internal energy u(T, v) and enthalpy h(T, p), respectively:

where the subscripts v and p denote the variables held fixed during differentiation. The properties cv and cp are referred to as specific heats(or heat capacities) because under certain special conditions, they relate the temperature change of a system to the amount of energy added by heat transfer. Their SI units are J/kg.K or J/mol K.

Different substances are affected to different magnitudes by the addition of heat. When a given amount of heat is added to different substances, their temperatures increase by different amounts.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. Heat capacity C has the unit of energy per degree or energy per kelvin. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or volume. Thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

In general, when a material changes phase from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a certain amount of energy is involved in this change of phase. In the case of liquid to gas phase change, this amount of energy is known as the enthalpy of vaporization (symbol ∆Hvap; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation. As an example, see the figure, which describes the phase transitions of water.

Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the gas (the pΔV work). When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place.

Latent Heat of Fusion

In the case of solid to liquid phase change, the change in enthalpy required to change its state is known as the enthalpy of fusion (symbol ∆Hfus; unit: J), also known as the (latent) heat of fusion. Latent heat is the amount of heat added to or removed from a substance to produce a phase change. This energy breaks down the attractive intermolecular forces and must provide the energy necessary to expand the system (the pΔV work).

The liquid phase has higher internal energy than the solid phase. This means energy must be supplied to a solid to melt it. Energy is released from a liquid when it freezes because the molecules in the liquid experience weaker intermolecular forces and have higher potential energy (a kind of bond-dissociation energy for intermolecular forces).

The temperature at which the phase transition occurs is the melting point.

When latent heat is added, no temperature change occurs. The enthalpy of fusion is a function of the pressure at which that transformation takes place. By convention, the pressure is assumed to be 1 atm (101.325 kPa) unless otherwise specified.

Zirconium – Properties

Element Zirconium
Atomic Number 40
Symbol Zr
Element Category Transition Metal
Phase at STP Solid
Atomic Mass [amu] 91.224
Density at STP [g/cm3] 6.511
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d2 5s2
Possible Oxidation States +4
Electron Affinity [kJ/mol] 41.1
Electronegativity [Pauling scale] 1.33
1st Ionization Energy [eV] 6.6339
Year of Discovery 1789
Discoverer Klaproth, Martin Heinrich
Thermal properties
Melting Point [Celsius scale] 1855
Boiling Point [Celsius scale] 4409
Thermal Conductivity [W/m K] 22.7
Specific Heat [J/g K] 0.27
Heat of Fusion [kJ/mol] 16.9
Heat of Vaporization [kJ/mol] 58.2